Air Carrier Operations (Ebook--epub) by Mark J. Holt

Air Carrier Operations (Ebook--epub) by Mark J. Holt

Author:Mark J. Holt
Language: eng
Format: epub
Publisher: Aviation Supplies and Academics, Inc.
Published: 2016-04-12T04:00:00+00:00

Radio Equipment for Extended Overwater Operations and for Certain Other Operations

When the aircraft is used for extended overwater operations, it is required by Section 121.351 to be equipped with at least two independent long-range navigation systems and at least two independent long-range communication systems necessary under normal operating conditions to communicate with any station along the intended route. The airplane must also be equipped to receive meteorological information from any point on the route by either of the two independent communication systems, and at least one of the communication systems must have two-way voice communication capability.

The FAA may also require that this same combination of equipment be installed for flag or supplemental operations or for domestic operations within the state of Alaska. This would be required if the FAA finds that equipment is necessary for search and rescue operations because of the nature of the terrain to be flown over.

If the carrier has installed and uses a single long-range navigation system (LRNS) and a single long-range communications system (LRCS), it may be authorized by the FAA to use this equipment in lieu of the dual long-range systems mentioned above. This relief provision will apply to operations and routes in certain geographic areas. The following are among the operational factors the FAA may consider in granting this relief authorization:

(1) The ability of the flight crew to navigate the airplane along the route within the degree of accuracy required by ATC,

(2) The length of the route being flown, and

(3) The duration of the very high frequency communications gap.

(14 CFR §121.351[c])

Emergency Equipment for Operations over Uninhabited Terrain Areas: Flag, Supplemental, and Certain Domestic Operations

Operations over uninhabited terrain: Flag or supplemental operations and domestic operations within the states of Alaska or Hawaii over an uninhabited area or any other area that the FAA specifies in the ops specs must use aircraft that have the following required equipment for search and rescue in case of an emergency:

(a) Suitable pyrotechnic signaling devices [flares].

(b) An approved survival type emergency locator transmitter. Batteries used in this transmitter must be replaced (or recharged, if the battery is rechargeable) when the transmitter has been in use for more than 1 cumulative hour, or when 50 percent of their useful life (or for rechargeable batteries, 50 percent of their useful life of charge) has expired, as established by the transmitter manufacturer under its approval.…

(c) Enough survival kits, appropriately equipped for the route to be flown for the number of occupants of the airplane.

(14 CFR §121.353)

Terrain Awareness and Warning System

Terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS) is a warning system designed to prevent controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). TAWS is a relatively new term used inclusively to describe older ground proximity warning systems (GPWS) and enhanced ground proximity warning systems (EGPWS), as well as newer terrain awareness and warning systems. The following sections of 14 CFR Parts 91, 121 and 135 require TAWS:

14 CFR §91.223 states that no person may operate a turbine-powered, U.S.-registered airplane configured with 6 or more passenger seats, excluding any pilot seat, unless that


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